Please allow your mind to boggle at this:
In short, it is the Lion Centaur of 1846, as published in a humor magazine of the time.
According to a listing on Worthpoint.com, Yankee Doodle Magazine was published at W.H. Graham's in 1846 and 1847. It aspired to be America's "Punch." It was a satire and comedy rag, and it died after being published only two years, 1846-47.
In one humor article, the author skewers his targets by describing them as musical-instrument-taurs running a race. On the full page of the magazine (see below), there is a version of the illustration showing several odd musical pairings in the race. And in the article, the creature above is twice referred to as a Lion Centaur. Over a hundred years later, the targets of his witty barbs, the issues involved, the meaning of his satire, is all lost to me! But we can delight at this antique wemic just the same! Here's the full page (click to embiggen):
I found this gem at Google Books, bless their withered little hearts!